What Are Biofilms?

IUPAC definition (2012) : “Aggregate of microorganisms in which cells that are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) adhere to each other and/or to a surface.

Note 1: A biofilm is a fixed system that can be adapted internally to environmental conditions by its inhabitants.

Note 2: The self-produced matrix of EPS, which is also referred to as slime, is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular biopolymers in various structural forms.”

-Formation & Examples:

Video explaining quorum sensing :

Removal of a biofilm by ultrasound microbubbles:

Ultrasonic Algae Control in fish farm:

Green Filamentous Algae:


Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC)  : contribution from DNV-GL.

Calculation of absorption of sound in seawater. National Physical Laboratory

Ship’s Ballast Water Management :

Practical training on ballast water sampling and analysis

Invaders From the Sea, a BBC Worldwide-IMO Production

BWT management, the benefits : Examples of some endangered species.

Baseline study of the benefits of micro-organisms : Deepwater Horizon Oil spill.

Support the Change project by eliminating antifouling toxins from the baltic sea.  

Solutions against bio-fouling and scaling