In the tabel below you find the most conventional physical water treatment methods. They involve processes that remove contaminants or reduce unwanted properties from water without the use of chemicals.

These methods leverage physical forces or barriers to treat water.

When the physical force is very small and act on hydrogen bonds, we call it quantum water treatment technology.

On this website we focus on complementary physical treatment technologies that can enhance the efficiency of conventional treatments and/or can reduce the use of unwanted chemicals and biocides even more. 

Water Treatment MethodCommon Positive EffectsCommon Negative Effects
Sand FiltrationSimple, inexpensiveRegular maintenance, ineffective against dissolved pollutants
Activated Carbon FiltrationRemoves odors, chemicalsPeriodic replacement required
Reverse OsmosisBroad contaminant removalHigh water waste, maintenance
UltrafiltrationEffective against pathogensSusceptible to fouling
NanofiltrationSoftens water, specific chemical removalNot as thorough as RO
MicrofiltrationLower energy requirementsDoes not remove viruses or small molecules
ScreeningFirst step in treatmentOnly for large particles
SedimentationLow energyIneffective for dissolved pollutants
DistillationRemoves most contaminantsEnergy-intensive
AerationImproves taste, smellLimited contaminant scope
UV DisinfectionNo chemicalsDoesn’t remove non-biological contaminants
OzonationEffective disinfectantPossible harmful by-products
ElectrocoagulationRemoves diverse pollutantsElectrode maintenance, energy use
Ion ExchangeWater softening, removes metalsRequires regeneration; doesn’t remove organics
ElectrodialysisEffective desalinationHigh energy, membrane fouling
Electromagnetic TreatmentNon-chemical scale preventionEfficacy debated, doesn’t remove existing scale
Ultrasonic Treatment High-and low-powerNon-chemical, various applications like algae and biofilm preventionThe signal form and sequence is critical per application
Membrane BioreactorsHigh-quality effluentHigh operational costs
Hydraulic RamNo external energy neededLimited application
Bank FiltrationNatural pre-treatmentDependent on geographical conditions
Vacuum FiltrationEffective for specific applicationsRequires energy, specific use cases
Biological FiltrationNatural process, improves water qualityTime for biofilm development
Disk FiltrationEfficient particle removalMaintenance for cleaning disks
Bag FiltrationSimple and versatileBags need replacing
Rapid Sand FiltrationEffective for turbidity reductionRequires backwashing
Slow Sand FiltrationLow maintenance, effective against pathogensLarge land area required
Ceramic FiltrationEffective for pathogensPores can clog
Centrifugal FiltrationFast, effective for dense particlesNot for fine particles
Gravity FiltrationLow energyLimited by filter type
PervaporationEffective for specific separationsEnergy-intensive
Forward OsmosisLow energy requirementRequires draw solution recovery
Mechanical Vapor RecompressionEfficient for desalinationHigh initial costs
Freeze-Thaw DesalinationLow-energy desalinationSlow process
Multi-Stage Flash DistillationLarge-scale desalinationHigh energy and capital costs
Cloud SeedingPotentially increases water supplyUnpredictable results
Ice PiggingEffective pipe cleaning with minimal waterRequires specific equipment
Air StrippingRemoves certain chemicals, gasesNot for non-volatile compounds
Structured Water DevicesProven scale and biofilm prevention ; Claims of health benefitsScientifically difficult to prove, but many industrial references are available
Magnetic Water TreatmentScale and corrosion prevention claimsLack of consistent scientific evidence
ElectrodeionizationContinuous operation, no chemical regenerantsRequires pre-treated water


The only chemical we consider for some applications is the use of 100% biodegradable organic hydrogen peroxide, stabilized with non-metallic additives.