Ozonation

Recent studies confirm the extra benefits from the combination of ozonation with sonification and/or nano-bubble infusion.

About Ozone:Ozon

Ozone is a naturally occurring gas containing 3 oxygen atoms. It is made by breaking oxygen molecules (O2) into atoms by a coronal discharge or the sun’s UV ray’s. Single oxygen atoms are not stable and regroup back into di-atomic oxygen (O2) molecules. During this recombination stage some atoms will regroup into loosely bonded tri-atomic oxygen (O3). This new molecule is called Ozone and is at atmospheric pressure a pale blue gas with a pungent smell. Due to the loose bond in this oxygen molecule, ozone is a very strong oxidant and an ideal chemical-free purification and a disinfecting agent.

Disinfection by O3 occurs through the rupture of the cell wall and is more efficient than Chlorine.

At a concentration of 0.4 ppm with an exposure time of 4 minutes, it has been shown to kill any bacteria,  mold, fungus and inactivate viruses.

Some typical Dosages and Reaction Times:

  • Aspergillus Niger (black Mount): Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/1.
  • Bacillus Bacteria: Destroyed by 0.2 mg/1 within 30 seconds
  • Bacillus Anthracis: Causes anthrax in sheep, cattle and pigs. A human pathogen. Ozone susceptible.
  • Clostridium Bacteria: Ozone-Susceptible.
  • Clostridium Botulinum Spores: Its toxin paralyzes the central nervous system, being a poison multiplying in food and meals. 0.4 to 0.5 mg/1.
  • Diphtheria Pathogen: Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/1.
  • Eberth Bacillus (Typhus abdominalis): Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/1.
  • Echo Virus 29: This virus most sensitive to ozone. After a contact time of 1 Minute at 1 mg/1 of ozone, 99.999% killed.
  • Escheriachia Coli Bacteria (from feces): Destroyed by 0.2 mg/1 within 30 seconds.
  • Encephalomyocarditis Virus: Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/1.
  • Enterovirus Virus: Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/1.
  • GDVII Virus: Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/1.
  • Herpes Virus: Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/1.
  • Influenza Virus: 0.4 to 0.5 mg/1.
  • Klebs-Loffler Virus: Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/1.
  • Poliomyelitis Virus: Kill of 99.999% with 0.3 to 0.4 mg/1 in 3 to 4 minutes.
  • Proteus Bacteria: Very Susceptible.
  • Pseudomonal Bacteria: Very Susceptible.
  • Rhabdovirus Virus: Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds.
  • Salmonella Bacteria: Very Susceptible.
  • Staphylococci: Destroyed by 1.5 to 2 mg/1.
  • Stomatitis Virus: Destroyed to zero level in less than 30 seconds with 0.1 to 0.8 mg/1.
  • Streptococcus Bacteria: Destroyed by 0.2 mg/1 within 30 seconds

 

(photocatalytic) Ozonation in combination with sonification or nano-bubble infusion allows benefits for even more applications:

– Slugde reduction and solubilization

– Removal of organic contaminants (biomass)

– COD and odor removal of dairy wastewater

– Kill micropollutants, pathogens and virussen in hospital wastewater

– Improve biodegradability and decline the concentration of heavy metals such as Pb As, Cd, and Cr from petrochemical wastewater.

– Decolorization of highly colored microalgae-based wastewater from piggery effluent.

– Eliminating of pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, estrogens, and neutral) and detoxification of the effluent wastewater.

– Removal of a large number of trace organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors present in secondary wastewater effluents.

– Color removal from textile industry wastewater (colored dyes, surfactants, and toxic chemicals). Discharge of textile wastewater to the environment is very harmful to ecosystems as it is highly colored.

Solutions against bio-fouling and scaling