What is UPW:
Ultra Pure Water is water that contains less than part-per-billion quantities of inorganic and organic molecules.
Even industries using these waters are prone for growth of microorganisms due to some oligotrophs that have adapted to these stringent conditions.
Biofilms present in UPW systems may be several cell layers thick. The dead cells accumulating in biofilms may themselves be used as a carbon source by successive generations of bacteria.
This phenomenon (cryptic growth) in piping systems is a challenge to UPW users.
Industries using this water :
- semiconductor industry
- pharmaceutical industry
- power generators with steam turbines
- coal fired power plants